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Electric Vehicle (EV) Explained: Types, advantages, government initiatives, impact, EV policy and more – Zee Business

Electric Vehicles (EV) include road and rail vehicles, surface, underwater vessels, electric aircraft, and electric spacecraft. EVs have drawn a considerable amount of interest over the past decade amid a rising carbon footprint and other environmental impacts of fuel-based vehicles
An electric vehicle (EV) is one that operates on an electric motor, instead of an internal-combustion engine that generates power by burning a mix of fuel and gases. Therefore, EVs are seen as a possible replacement for current-generation automobile, in order to address the issue of rising pollution, global warming, depleting natural resources, etc. 
Electric Vehicles include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft, and electric spacecraft. Though the concept of electric vehicles has been around for a long time, it has drawn a considerable amount of interest in the past decade amid a rising carbon footprint and other environmental impacts of fuel-based vehicles.

An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels, fuel cells, or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity.
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Electric Vehicles – 8 Different Types – Electric Vehicles can be broadly classified into 8 different types.
Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV): A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from any external source of electricity, such as wall sockets, and the electricity stored in the
Rechargeable battery pack drives. Plug-in Electric Vehicles can be further categorized into:
Plug-in Hybrid Electric vehicles, (PHEVs)
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs)
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV): A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery can be recharged by plugging it into an external source of electric power, as well as by its on-board engine and generator. Most PHEVs are passenger cars, but there are also PHEV versions of commercial vehicles and vans, military vehicles, utility trucks, trains, motorcycles, buses, and mopeds.
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs): A battery electric vehicle (BEV), pure electric vehicle, only-electric vehicle, or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that exclusively uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs, with no secondary source of propulsion. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) thus have no internal combustion engine, fuel cell, or fuel tank.
Some of the broad categories of vehicles that come under this category are trucks, cars, buses, motorcycles, bicycles, forklifts, etc.
Advantages of Electric Vehicles
Electric Vehicles – Environmental Advantages
Electric cars (or electric vehicles, EVs) have several environmental benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engine cars.
Have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
Reduce dependence on petroleum
Reduce health effects from air pollution
Reduce dependence on petroleum
They produce little or no tailpipe emissions
Electrical Vehicles – Better Energy Efficiency
Internal Combustion engines will consume fuel even when the vehicle is stationary, whereas, in electrical vehicles, the energy is not consumed when it is stationary.
Electrical Vehicles ‘tank-to-wheels’ efficiency is about a factor of 3 higher than internal combustion engine vehicles
Electric Vehicles – Mechanical Advantages
They can be finely controlled and provide high torque from rest, unlike internal combustion engines, and do not need multiple gears to match power curves. Hence it removes the requirement for gearboxes and torque converters.
Lesser vibration
Lesser noise
Electric motors are mechanically very simple and often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency over the full range of speeds and power output and can be precisely controlled.
Electric Vehicles in India – Government Schemes and Initiatives for Promotion of Electric Vehicles
In February 2019, the Union Cabinet cleared a Rs 10,000-crore programme under the FAME-II scheme. This scheme came into force on April 1, 2019. The main objective of the scheme is to encourage faster adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles by offering upfront incentives on the purchase of electric vehicles and also by establishing necessary charging infrastructure for EVs.
In 2017, Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari made a statement showing India’s intent to move to 100 percent electric cars by 2030. However, the automobile industry raised concerns over the execution of such a plan. The government subsequently diluted the plan from 100 percent to 30 percent.
In 2013, India unveiled the ‘National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020’ to make a major shift to electric vehicles and to address the issues of national energy security, vehicular pollution, and growth of domestic manufacturing capabilities. The scheme was to offer subsidies and create supporting infrastructure for e-vehicles.
Impact of Electric Vehicles on Employment and Economic Growth
The battery manufacturing industry in India can become bigger than the total amount spent on the import of crude oil. This would provide a huge boost to the Indian economy.
There needs to be a careful plan to hand-hold mini and micro auto component industries, which employ large numbers of people. Many of these companies won’t survive as Electric Vehicles replace petrol/diesel vehicles. Hence it is imperative to help them during the transition phase to EV components manufacturing.
European Climate Foundation has estimated that through reducing oil demand by more efficient electric cars, employment will increase by 5,00,000 to 8,50,000 by 2030.
As per one of the studies, net private and social benefits are estimated between $300 and $400 per Electric vehicle. The revenue loss for governments from the taxes on the oil sector is expected to be replaced by higher tax revenues in other economic sectors.
EVs will create opportunities in durable and lightweight thermoplastics, higher demand for electricity, storage, and many others.
Electric Vehicle Policy (EV) 2020
The Delhi Government has announced the Electric Vehicle Policy 2020 where the emphasis will be given on the replacement of two-wheelers, public transport, and shared vehicles and goods-carriers instead of private four-wheelers, with Electric Vehicles (EVs). As per this policy, the focus will be shifted to e-mobility, including e-autos, e-buses, etc. The Government will also offer low-interest rate loans to buy electric vehicles.  A state EV fund will be introduced to cover up the expenditure of the EV Policy.  The main objective of the Electric Vehicle Policy is to reduce air pollution and curb the health emergency issues in the states like Delhi. These e-vehicles will also reduce the expense of buying motor vehicles. 
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